The consolidation of the Lithuanian lands began in the late 12th century. The Lithuanian Crusade began after the Livonian Order and Teutonic Knights, crusading military orders, were established in Riga in 1202 and in Prussia in 1226, respectively. While there were certainly substantial regional differences in Kievan Rus', it was the Lithuanian annexation of much of southern and western Ruthenia that led to the permanent division between Ukrainians, Belarusians, and Russians. Although they had battled in the past, the Lithuanians and the Žemaičiai now faced a common enemy. Media in category "Grand Duchy of Lithuania" The following 27 files are in this category, out of 27 total. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the last pagan state in Europe. Locality Vistychi, Brest District, Brest Region, Belarus . [51] The use of Ruthenian by academics in areas formerly part of Rus' and even in Lithuania proper was widespread. Vytautas backed the economic development of the state and introduced many reforms. The heart of the Grand Duchy was on Belarusian territory. As a result, it gained control of the northwestern territory of Samogitia (confirmed in 1422) and permanently reduced the German threat to Lithuania. The rapid expansion of the influence of Muscovy soon put it into a comparable position as the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and after the annexation of Novgorod in 1478, Muscovy was among the preeminent states in northeastern Europe. [27] During his reign Lithuania engaged in constant warfare with the Order, the Kingdom of Poland, and Ruthenia. The Augustów Voivodeship (later Augustów Governorate), including the counties of Marijampolė and Kalvarija, was attached to the Kingdom of Poland, a rump state in personal union with Russia. [14] However, the river is very small and some find it improbable that such a small and local object could have lent its name to an entire nation. Grand Duchy of Lithuania. 3 Gröscher, Landesdenkmalamt Berlin, Ausgrabung U5, 660 – 2635, Vorderseite.jpg 780 × 765; 171 KB. However, the newly reformed Commonwealth was invaded by Russia in 1792 and partitioned between neighbouring states. The sources are preserved in works of graduates from Stanislovas Rapolionis based Lithuanian language school graduate Martynas Mažvydas and Rapalionis relative Abraomas Kulvietis. The peace treaty with Galicia–Volhynia of 1219 provides evidence of cooperation between Lithuanians and Samogitians. Smaller picture is placed in Encyclopedia of Soviet Lithuania, volume 4, General editorial office of encyclopedia of the Lithuanian SSR, Vilnius, 1988. The Seimas was an irregular gathering of the Lithuanian nobility, called as needed by the Grand Duke or during an interregnum by the Lithuanian Council of Lords (an early government). The authority of the grand duke subsequently declined, and, without its strong ruler, Lithuania was unable to prevent the Tatars from continually raiding its southern lands; nor could it stop Muscovy from annexing the principalities of Novgorod (1479) and Tver (1485), which had maintained close relations with Lithuania, from seizing one-third of Lithuania’s Russian lands (1499–1503), and from capturing Smolensk (1514), which Lithuania had held since 1408. [3] [4] [5] Contents. Lithuania was Christianized in 1387, led by Jogaila, who personally translated Christian prayers into the Lithuanian language[31] and his cousin Vytautas the Great who founded many Catholic churches and allocated lands for parishes in Lithuania. [61][62] This feeling was expressed in poetry by Czesław Miłosz. In other languages, the grand duchy is referred to as: The first written reference to Lithuania is found in the Quedlinburg Chronicle, which dates from 1009. An estimate of the population in the territory of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania together gives a population at 7.5 million for 1493, breaking them down by ethnicity at 3.75 million Ruthenians (ethnic Ukrainians, Belarusians), 3.25 million Poles and 0.5 million Lithuanians. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Austria. Despite that, Polish language editions stated the same in Polish language. Samogitia was exclusive through state in its economic situation – it lay near ports[clarification needed] and there were fewer people under corvee, instead of that, many simple people were money payers. The state did not disintegrate, however, and Traidenis came to power in 1269. When the wars between Muscovy and Lithuania were resumed in the Livonian War (1558–83), however, Lithuania’s resources were strained, and it was forced to appeal to Poland for help. The Seimas was an irregular gathering of the Lithuanian nobility, called as needed by the Grand Duke or during an interregnum by the Lithuanian Council of Lords (an early government). It was founded by the Lithuanians, one of the polytheistic Baltic tribes from Aukštaitija. In 1569 it became a part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until 1791. The same was stated in part 4 of the Statute: .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state from the 12th century until 1795. The subjugation of Eastern Slavs by two powers created substantial differences between them that persist to this day. Some older etymological theories relate the name to a small river not far from Kernavė, the core area of the early Lithuanian state and a possible first capital of the would-be Grand Duchy of Lithuania, is usually credited as the source of the name. The duchy grew to include large parts of the former Kievan Rus' and other Slavic lands. Grand duchy of Lithuania, state, incorporating Lithuania proper, Belarus, and western Ukraine, which became one of the most influential powers in eastern Europe (14th–16th century). A separate Eastern Orthodox metropolitan eparchy was created sometime between 1315 and 1317 by Constantinople Patriarch John XIII. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state from the 12th [1] –13th century until 1569. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Austria. In 1316, the Lithuanians even sought to set up its o… The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lietuvos Didzioji Kunigaikstyste) - The flag of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 1578 (reconstructed according to descriptions). These languages included Lithuanian, Ruthenian,[46][47] Polish and, to a lesser extent (mostly in early diplomatic communication), Latin and German. From the time of Vytautas, there are fewer remaining documents written in Ruthenian than there are in Latin and German, but later Ruthenian became the main language of documentation and writings, especially in eastern and southern parts of the Duchy. Such relationships could be tenuous, however, as changes in a city's internal politics could disrupt Lithuanian control, as happened on a number of occasions with Novgorod and other East-Slavic cities. CD. Base: File:Pahonia. J. Kiaupienė. Jogaila took the Polish name Władysław II Jagiełło. By the 1580s the majority of the senators from Lithuania were Calvinist or Socinian Unitarians (Jan Kiszka). By contemporary accounts, the Lithuanians called their early rulers. [citation needed] Such were the linguistic trends in the Grand Duchy that by the political reforms of 1564–1566 parliaments local land courts, appellate courts and other State functions were recorded in Polish,[51] and Polish became increasingly spoken across all social classes. After the civil war ended, Mindaugas was crowned as King of Lithuania on 6 July 1253, starting a decade of relative peace. Pagan Lithuanians initially paid tribute to Polotsk, but they soon grew in strength and organized their own small-scale raids. [32][33][34] The Grand Duchy retained many rights in the federation (including separate ministries, laws, army, and treasury) until the May Constitution of Poland and Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations were passed in 1791. It was founded by the Lithuanians, one of the pagan Baltic tribes from Aukštaitija. The Grand Duchy Research Project was begun by Sonia and David Hoffman. Pressed by the crusading Teutonic and Livonian Knights, the Lithuanian tribes united under Mindaugas (d. 1263) and formed a strong, cohesive grand duchy during the reign of Gediminas (reigned 1316–41), who extended their frontiers across the upper Dvina River in the northeast to the Dnieper River in the southeast and to the Pripet Marshes in the south. [43] Ruthenians were native to the east-central and south-eastern parts of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL) Research Project. [24] The Teutonic Knights used this period to strengthen their position in parts of Samogitia and Livonia, but they lost the Battle of Skuodas in 1259 and the Battle of Durbe in 1260. The country also became one of the major centres of the Reformation. This treaty lists 21 Lithuanian dukes, including five senior Lithuanian dukes from Aukštaitija (Živinbudas, Daujotas, Vilikaila, Dausprungas and Mindaugas) and several dukes from Žemaitija. Then it became a constituent part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until 1791, when the Constitution of May 3, 1791 abolished it in favor of a unitary state. Photos. After Gediminas’ death, two of his sons succeeded him: Kęstutis ruled Lithuania proper, preventing territorial encroachments from the German knights and their allies, while Algirdas, the titular grand duke, continued his father’s expansionist policies and, by conquering vast Russian and Tatar territories, stretched his domain from the Baltic to the Black Sea. That town (according to 1897 Russian statistics) was 40 percent…, …by the grand duchy of Lithuania, which was essentially an international or nonnational formation led by a foreign dynasty (of eastern Lithuanian pagan origins) ruling over predominantly Belarusian and Ukrainian populations. Nevertheless, it soon became the subordinate member of the new state. Zigmas Zinkevičius. [citation needed]. Treniota, together with Daumantas of Pskov, assassinated Mindaugas and his two sons, Ruklys and Rupeikis, in 1263. Traductions en contexte de "Grand Duchy of" en anglais-français avec Reverso Context : grand duchy of luxembourg, of the grand duchy, grand duchy of lithuania One of the main sources of Lithuanian written in the Eastern Aukštaitian dialect (Vilnius dialect), preserved by Konstantinas Sirvydas in a trilingual (Polish-Latin-Lithuanian) 17th-century dictionary, Dictionarium trium linguarum in usum studiosae juventutis, the main Lithuanian language dictionary used until the late 19th century. Z. Kiaupa. This page is dedicated to the liberation of the people in my country of Grand Duchy of Lithvania! [18] In the 12th century, Slavic chronicles refer to Lithuania as one of the areas attacked by the Rus'. Current state (2004), Vilnius University and the Church of St. John, Pažaislis Monastery church, decorated with expensive marble, Žemaitukas, a historic horse breed from Lithuania, known from the 6–7th centuries, used as a warhorse by the Lithuanians, "Christianization of Lithuania in 1387", oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1889, Royal Castle in Warsaw, Priest, lexicographer Konstantinas Sirvydas, the cherisher of the Lithuanian language in the 17th century, European state from the 12th century until 1795, Supposed appearance of the royal (military) banner with design derived from a 16th century coat of arms, The Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the height of its power in the 15th century, superimposed on modern borders, Languages for state and academic purposes. While the battle is remembered as one of the greatest Lithuanian victories, Muscovy ultimately prevailed in the war. Taking advantage of internal conflicts, Mindaugas allied with the Livonian Order. [19] The sudden spark of military raids marked consolidation of the Lithuanian lands in Aukštaitija.[1]. GDL Baracinka 1665.jpg 627 × 300; 32 KB. On the other hand, such a fact is not unprecedented in world history. At some point between 1180 and 1183 the situation began to change, and the Lithuanians started to organize sustainable military raids on the Slavic provinces, raiding the Principality of Polotsk as well as Pskov, and even threatening Novgorod. The Order was forced to become a branch of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, making Samogitia, a strip of land that separated Livonia from Prussia, the main target of both orders. By the 15th century the dynasty had become Slavic in culture (a version of Belarusian was the official language…, …his skillful dealings with the Polish-Lithuanian state, which had expanded down the Dnieper basin and into Slavic territories on the south flank of Moscow. Political, economic and cultural life in the Grand Duchy was governed by Belarusian and Lithuanian tribes. The rapid territorial expansion started at the late reign of Gediminas[7] and continued to expand under the diarchy and co-leadership of his sons Algirdas and Kęstutis. However, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was not a nation-state in the modern sense. A truncated state (whose principal cities were Kraków, Warsaw and Vilnius) remained that was nominally independent. The British in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania For over five hundred years Britons have visited the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In the 16th century at the time of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Lithuanian lands became partially polonized over time and started to use the Polish language for writing much more often than the Lithuanian and Ruthenian languages. This flag I drew according to the cutting from booklet. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Retrospective of Comparative Historical Sociology of Empires, Baltic states under Soviet rule (1944–91), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Grand_Duchy_of_Lithuania&oldid=996928756, Subdivisions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, 1795 disestablishments in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, States and territories established in the 13th century, States and territories disestablished in the 18th century, Articles with dead external links from February 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles containing Belarusian-language text, Articles containing Estonian-language text, Articles containing Latvian-language text, Articles containing Lithuanian-language text, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing Ukrainian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2012, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Updates? Polish finally became the official chancellery language of the Commonwealth in 1697. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania Scholarship is a special scholarship offered by Vilnius University for the most gifted applicants from Belarus in order to express solidarity with the people of Belarus and to support the democratic aspirations of the neighboring country. It was founded by the Lithuanians, one of the polytheistic Baltic tribes from Aukštaitija. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion At one point, though, Pope Alexander VI reprimanded the Grand Duke for keeping non-Catholics as advisers. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania 1253–1795, Grand Duchy of Lithuania administrative map, Zenonas Norkus. On the contrary, if the dukes would move from Lithuanian lands to rule the non-Lithuanian lands, they would commonly adopt the local language and religion. Ethnic Lithuanians were very dedicated to their faith. Mindaugas, the duke[22] of southern Lithuania,[23] was among the five senior dukes mentioned in the treaty with Galicia–Volhynia. [54] With the acquisition of new Ruthenian territories, in 1340 this portion decreased to 30%. In 1260 the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the land of Lithuania, and ethnic Lithuanians formed majority (67.5%) of its 400,000 people. During Vytautas' rule, the Radziwiłł and Goštautas families started to gain influence. The lands of modern-day Belarus and Ukraine, as well as local dukes (princes) in these regions, were firmly Orthodox Christian (Greek Catholic after the Union of Brest), though. [30] In 1380, a Lithuanian army allied with Russian forces to defeat the Golden Horde in the Battle of Kulikovo, and though the rule of the Mongols did not end, their influence in the region waned thereafter. Its gentry adopted Polish customs and language; its administration organized itself on Polish models and pursued Polish policies. Lithuanian resistance to a union was strong, but, when Sigismund II Augustus (grand duke of Lithuania 1544–72; king of Poland 1548–72) attached one-third of Lithuania’s territories (Volhynia, Kiev, Bratslav, and Podlasia) to Poland, the Lithuanians had to accept the Union of Lublin (1569). Fonts 1 866 655 3733. Traductions en contexte de "grand duchy" en anglais-français avec Reverso Context : the grand duchy, grand duchy of luxembourg, grand duchy of lithuania [38] In 1387, Lithuania converted to Catholicism, while most of the Ruthenian lands stayed Orthodox. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state from the 12th [1] –13th century until 1569. [43], Numerous languages were used in state documents depending on which period in history and for what purpose. [10] Lithuanian noblemen, including the Radvila family, attempted to break the personal union with Poland. Being more similar to a simple population the local szlachta spoke Lithuanian to a bigger extent than in the areas close to the capital Vilnius, which itself had become a centre of intensive linguistic Polonization of surrounding areas since the 18th century. The official language from the middle of the 14 th century was Ruthenian, also known as Old Belarusian. After 1450 a competition developed for control of the numerous semi-independent principalities of the Dnieper and upper Donets regions. The Grand Duchy of Lithuaniaball was a European state that became a part of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealthball later. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of … In Ruthenia, Vytenis managed to recapture lands lost after the assassination of Mindaugas and to capture the principalities of Pinsk and Turaŭ. The Ruthenian language, also called Chancery Slavonic in its written form, was used to write laws alongside Polish, Latin and German, but use varied between regions. Rus' principalities were never incorporated directly into the Golden Horde, maintaining vassal relationships with a fair degree of independence. Elektroninės leidybos namai: Vilnius. The battle was part of a long series of Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars conducted by Russian rulers striving to gather all the former lands of Kievan Rus' under their rule. In 1248, a civil war broke out between Mindaugas and his nephews Tautvilas and Edivydas. The state was founded by the Lithuanians, a polytheistic Baltic tribe from Aukštaitija. On 8 September 1514, the allied forces of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Kingdom of Poland, under the command of Hetman Konstanty Ostrogski, fought the Battle of Orsha against the army of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, under Konyushy Ivan Chelyadnin and Kniaz Mikhail Golitsin. The duchy later expanded to include large portions of the former Kievan Rus' and other Slavic lands, covering the territory of present-day Bela… The non-ball version is more like an Ansc hluss form. Agriculture did not emerge until the 3rd millennium BC due to a harsh climate and terrain and a lack of s… The duchy grew to include large parts of the former Kievan Rus' and other Slavic lands. There is Sigismund von Herberstein's note left, that there were in an ocean of Ruthenian language in this part of Europe two non-Ruthenian regions: Lithuania and Samogitia.[51]. The state of Lithuania was formed in the 1230s: when threatened by the Livonian Order in the … In 1579, Stephen Báthory, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, founded Vilnius University, one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe. He promised to convert to Christianity and to exchange some lands in western Lithuania in return for military assistance against his nephews and the royal crown. The Poles refused unless the two states were formally united. The consolidation of the Lithuanian lands began in the late 12th century. This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 06:06. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state from the 12th –13th century until 1569. Eventually, the Union of Lublin of 1569 created a new state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Since the founding of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the higher strata of Lithuanian society from ethnic Lithuania spoke Lithuanian, although since the later 16th century gradually began using Polish, and from Ruthenia – Ruthenian language. In 1552, Sigismund II Augustus ordered that orders of the magistrate of Vilnius be announced in Lithuanian, Polish and Ruthenian. In a crusade against the Golden Horde in 1398 (in an alliance with Tokhtamysh), Lithuania invaded northern Crimea and won a decisive victory. In 1387, Moldavia became a vassal of Poland and, in a broader sense, of Lithuania. After Vytautas’ death (1430), Lithuania continued to have its own rulers, who were nominally subordinate to the Polish king but maintained Lithuania’s autonomy and its authority in eastern European affairs. While migration since 1795 and especially since 1991 was largely … The Duchy of Lithuania (Latin: Ducatus Lithuaniae; Lithuanian: Lietuvos kunigaikštystė) was a state-territorial formation of ethnic Lithuanians which existed from the 13th century to 1413. With the acquisition of new Ruthenian territories, in 1340 this portion decreased to 30% By the time of the largest expansion towards Rus' lands, which came at the end of the 13th and during the 14th century, the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was 800 to 930 thousand km2, just 10% to 14% of which was ethnically … Genealogy Projects tagged with Grand Duchy of Lithuania on the Geni Family Tree « Back to Projects Dashboard. Пагоня (1764-92).jpg. The Christian orders posed a significant threat to pagan Baltic tribes, and further galvanized the formation of the Lithuanian state. Media in category "Coins of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania" The following 19 files are in this category, out of 19 total. The Grand Duchy of Lithvania. According to Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii by Sigismund von Herberstein, the primary source for the information on the battle, the much smaller army of Poland–Lithuania (under 30,000 men) defeated the 80,000 Muscovite soldiers, capturing their camp and commander. In 1569 it became a part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until 1791. [43][44][45][46], The voivodeships with the predominant ethnic Lithuanian population, Vilnius,[citation needed] Trakai,[citation needed] and Samogitian voivodeships, remained almost wholly Lithuanian speaking, both colloquially and by ruling nobility. Up until 1387,[citation needed] Lithuanian nobles professed their own religion, which was polytheistic. It was started by the Lithuanians. FOOTAGE. It is also the first study to apply this comparative and social scientific method to the GDL. Download grand duchy of lithuania stock photos. [42] In the other parts of the duchy, the majority of the population, including Ruthenian nobles and ordinary people, used both spoken and written Ruthenian languages. Catechism by Petkevicius (1598).jpg 220 × 374; 40 KB. Located on the Lesnaya River. Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Austria. SEE PRICING & … The inhabitants of what is now Lithuania then travelled less and engaged in local hunting, gathering and fresh-water fishing. Polish influence subsequently began to replace Russian influence in Lithuania. The war of Lithuania against military Orders, which lasted for more than 200 years, and was one of the longest wars in the history of Europe, was finally ended. Kelios mintys, kurios kyla skaitant Alfredo Bumblausko Senosios Lietuvos istoriją 1009-1795m. (2003) Elektroninės leidybos namai: Vilnius. The Livonian Rhymed Chronicle, reports that by the mid-1230s, Mindaugas had acquired supreme power in the whole of Lithuania. A failed attempt was made in 1918 to revive the Kingdom under a German Prince, Wilhelm Karl, Duke of Urach, who would have reigned as Mindaugas II of Lithuania. Vistychi (Belor.Вістычы) is an agro-town in the Brest region of the Brest region of Belarus. Besides devastation, Ruthenian population declined proportionally after the territorial losses to Russian Empire. Mindaugas tried to expand his influence in Polatsk, a major centre of commerce in the Daugava River basin, and Pinsk. Elektroninės leidybos namai: Vilnius. FOOTAGE. When the Poles chose the 19-year-old Lithuanian grand duke Casimir as their king (1447), the two countries became somewhat more closely associated. Peasants in ethnic Lithuanian territories spoke exclusively Lithuanian, except transitional border regions,[citation needed] but the Statutes of Lithuania and other laws and documentation were written in Ruthenian, Latin and Polish. [44], Usage of the Lithuanian language still continued at Court after the death of Vytautas and Jogaila while Grand Duke Alexander I could understand and speak Lithuanian. After Vytautas's death, Lithuania's relationship with the Kingdom of Poland greatly deteriorated. The state was founded by the Lithuanians, a polytheistic nation born from several united Baltic tribes from Aukštaitija. Germany had the highest witchcraft execution rate, while Ireland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL) had the lowest. [6] It was a multi-ethnic and multi-confessional state, with great diversity in languages, religion, and cultural heritage. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century [1] to 1795, [2] when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Austria. The river flows in the lowlands and easily spills over its banks, therefore the traditional Lithuanian form liet- could be directly translated as lietis (to spill), of the root derived from the Proto-Indo-European leyǝ-. The duchy grew to include large parts of the former Kievan Rus' and other Slavic lands. Under the 1522 peace treaty, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania made large territorial concessions. Casimir, however, in an attempt to guarantee Lithuania’s independent status, granted a charter to the Lithuanian boyars who had proclaimed him grand duke (1447), verifying the nobles’ rights and privileges, giving them extensive authority over the peasantry, and thereby increasing their political power. In 1260, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the land of Lithuania, and ethnic Lithuanians formed the majority (67.5%) of its 400,000 people. Gediminaičiai ir Jogailaičiai prie Vytauto palikimo. (2003). The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Austria. An example is Novgorod, which was often in the Lithuanian sphere of influence and became an occasional dependency of the Grand Duchy. Belarusian opposition leader Svetlana Tikhanovskaya has called on the Lithuanian government to consider sanctions against Belaruskali if the Belarusian... Plan to mark anniversary of May 3 Constitution approved . In the mid and late 17th century, due to Russian and Swedish invasions, there was much devastation and population loss on throughout the Grand Duchy of Lithuania,[58] including ethnic Lithuanian population in Vilnius surroundings. The Lithuanians, however, also remained involved with their western neighbours; in 1385, under pressure from the hostile Teutonic Knights, the grand duke Jogaila (reigned 1377–1434) concluded a pact with Poland (Union of Krewo), agreeing to accept the Roman Catholic faith, marry the Polish queen, become king of Poland, and unite Poland and Lithuania under a single ruler. It did not seek to impose the Lithuanian language, religion, customs, or culture on its non-Lithuanian inhabitants. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). 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Senators from Lithuania were Calvinist or Socinian Unitarians ( Jan Kiszka ). 36.