Once this is confirmed, the following cropping patterns are undertaken in various combinations in order to obtain the most time effective and high yielding harvest. Impact of high-yielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in cropping patterns. Concepts of various cropping and farming systems. Unlike mono-cropping, crop rotation focuses on agriculture conservation as it helps improve soil structure and fertility, prevents soil erosion and control weeds and pests. which can only be possible if we empower the semi-rural and rural population by providing them with educational and lifestyle privileges. This is easier to carry out while planting but difficult to maintain in terms of weeding, fertilisation and harvesting. Anthropogenic factors include technological factors, government factors and socio-economic factors. here are multiple advantages of applying diverse cropping pattern. To access the same, a google account is a must. NEO IAS, is a Premier Coaching Institute for IAS,IPS,IFS, UPSC Civil Services Examination preparation, We are leading IAS Coaching Institute in Kochi, Trivandrum of Kerala State INDIAN AGRICULTURE (GS-3) - CROPPING PATTERNS IN INDIA - Best and Top IAS Coaching Institute in Kochi, Trivandrum, Kerala As the UPSC asks factual questions according to the recent trend, this year also aspirant can expect similar questions. Based on these factors, the cropping and farming regions are determined. Elaborate the emphasis on millets production and consumption. Furthermore, land ownership, agricultural land sizes, household needs like food, fuel, fodder, etc. India remains the second biggest harvester of fruits, vegetables and food grains as well as is a massive player in the dairy, livestock and animal products industry. Row Intercropping- This is a much more organised pattern of intercropping with growing the two or more crops in distinct rows at adequate distances which makes maintenance and harvesting easier. Impact of high-yielding and short duration varieties on shifts in cropping patterns. Even when its share of contribution to the GDP has been gradually lowering, agriculture remains the biggest player in the country accounting for 14% of the GDP of the nation and employing nearly 54% of the Indian population. We ask students to login via google as we share a lot of our content over google drive. My Courses; IAS Foundation/UAP; Samachar Manthan; Mains TS; Prelims TS; Monthly Mags ; Login Click here to login with Google Download Android App . . Uniformly high temperature (21-30). Climatic elements as factors of crop growth, impact of changing environment on cropping pattern as indicators of environments. UPSC IFS Agriculture Syllabus Paper - I • Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation. Under the Anthropogenic factors, the government factors play an important role in farming pattern. In order to obtain maximum yields, different patterns of cropping are practised. It is similar to mono-cropping except every year, the crop is changed. Growing different crops on pieces of land in pre-planned succession in different seasons is known as crop rotation. Factors affecting cropping pattern Geographical Factors: Type of soil e.g. 2.Rainfall normal (50-100cm) 3. This pattern is utilised when the slope is too steep and there is no alternative to control soil erosion. Cropping patterns in different agro-climatic zones of the country. This cropping pattern involves growing different crops every year. black soil in Deccan plateau is good for cotton Type of climate – In the … To come out of this, India will need to reduce the number of people in this field and direct them to other sectors. Groundnut in Kharif + wheat in Rabi + Vegetation in Zaid. For example, If you purchase the notes with “ Download Validity == 1 Year ,” on 30/01/2021 , then you will be able to download … Rice-pigeonpea and pigeonpea-wheat is an ideal example of sequential cropping. useful for the preparation of UPSC (IAS) Prelims exam 2020. Impact of high-yielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in cropping patterns. Each paper is of 250 marks, making a total of 500 marks. The agricultural land devoted to different crops in a region or state or country at a particular point of time is called the cropping pattern. 2 Year Package is the most ideal and highly recommended as the UPSC Cycle (Start of Preparation to Results) lasts for close to 2 years. (Answer in 250 words) 15. Cropping pattern is the pattern of cropping done in a defined proportion of land under cultivation during a particular growing season. For a sub-tropical country which comprises a variety of geographical biomes including dense forests, hot and cold deserts, coastal plains, grasslands, tundra, etc. Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production. Cropping patterns in India largely governed by rainfall, climate, temperature, sowing season, and soil types. July 31, 2019 by Karan Kapoor Leave a Comment. The mathematical formula to determine the Relative Yield Index is given as-. Different regions of the country grow different variety of crops at different seasons of a year. Covering whole general studies syllabus along with highly useful material for optional preparation . Climate involves the weather and rainfall patterns of a geographical area. Cropping patterns in different agro-climatic zones of the country. The cropping patterns in India can be presented by taking the major crops into consideration as the base crop and all other possible alternative crops. In India, the combination of rice-cauliflower-onion-summer gourd is a common example of relay cropping. have a temperate climate. Factors influencing the cropping pattern. How has the emphasis on certain crops brought about changes in cropping patterns in recent past? A radial orientation of the cropping pattern may be affected by changes in agrarian policy, improvements in … Crop combination is done based on the duration of the crop. Cropping Pattern in India: Cropping patterns in India largely governed by rainfall, climate, temperature, sowing season, and soil types. • Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production. Close login. Sometimes a number of crops are cultivated in combinations and rotations over a period. As previously mentioned, the environmental diversity of the geography and biology of India has led the various communities of the nation to adopt different methods of farming, there are more factors on which a cropping pattern depends upon for successful harvest. India has been home to agricultural and allied practices for around 10,000 years. Coconut and Mexican marigold cultivation is one such example of intercropping in India. Package of practices for production of important cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fibers, sugar, commercial and fodder crops. Organic and Precision Farming. What changes in cropping pattern would you suggest to make farming a viable sector in India? It helps to … This gives us an idea of which crops are dominant crops, which occupy the maximum cultivable areal unit and helps the farmers classify the crops into four distinct categories- High yield and spread; High yield-low spread; Low yield-high spread and Low yield and spread. Major Cropping Patterns in India - part I Because of the diversities in relief, soils and climate in India we can produce almost all the varieties of crops. But many landowners and farmers still utilise the conventional farming practices. The cropping patterns are affected by changes in agrarian policy, availability of agricultural inputs, improvement in technology. But to achieve this, crop rotation involves extensive planning before implementation. Farmer’s Protest: Remunerative Cropping Patterns needed. Organic and Precision farming. Impact of high yielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in cropping patterns. Plant growth heavily depends upon water, nutrients and amount of sunlight it receives every day. Such diverse nature of cropping pattern in India makes this agricultural practice highly interesting topic to study. This is where the Socio-economic factors come into motion. India has been home to agricultural and allied practices for around 10,000 years. Ones the crops are harvested, the farmer can rotate the crops in each strip. Cropping pattern in India. This pattern increases the yield harvested from a single field for a given season. Ultimate Companion for UPSC Civil Services Aspirants. Major Cropping Patterns in India - part II This is the second part of the article Major Cropping Patterns in India - part I. Having this information, the farmers and landowners can decide how much area to allot to which crop to gain maximum profit. The cropping patterns of a region are directly influenced by the geo-climatic, socio-cultural, economic, historical and political factors. are grown during southwest monsoon in the months of June to November. UPSC IAS Preparation. Context: The Farmers’ protests have erupted once again in north India primarily in opposition to the new farm acts, who have been demanding the complete repeal of the laws. Close Menu. This lowering of workforce should come with secure employments in other fields like skilled labour, technician, etc. For a detailed explanation, watch the below video: Cropping Patterns| Agriculture geography mains| Geography of India, iscuss the cropping patters in different agricultural. List of Long Run Effects of Current Trends in Cropping Pattern: Increased use of Fertilizers and Pesticides: We are using more and more fertilizers and pesticides of the inorganic type while growing crops which has two main disadvantages: One is that our health is being affected due to the fruits and vegetables becoming so toxic […] Two-thirds of India’s population is engaged in agricultural activities. Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country . Crop combinations are to be selected in such a way that one remains a major crop and the other acts as a cover crop or a minor crop so that the soil can contain enough moisture and nutrition for both. Adding on to these factors, the perception and evaluation of the environment also play an important role in guiding which crop should grow in a certain region. Samachar Manthan. Post navigation. Black cotton soil. India is geographically a vast country so it has various food and non-food crops which are cultivated in three main cropping seasons which are rabi, kharif and zaid. Cropping patterns in different agro-climatic zones of the country. It also helps maintain the biodiversity of the land. Table of Contents: There are  mainly four cropping patterns: Growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same land with no definite pattern. Cropping pattern is, however, a dynamic notion as it changes over space and time. Cropping pattern plays a vital role in determining the level of agricultural production, which in turn would reflect on the agricultural economy of an area. IAS Foundation/UAP. (200 Words) Crop pattern refers to the proportion of area under different crops at a particular period of time. Rabi crops like wheat, barley and peas are grown during the winter season between November to April. In India, the cropping pattern is determined by rainfall, temperature, climate, technology and soil type. Cropping pattern refers to the crop sequences and spatial arrangement techniques in an area at a particular point in time. The statistics related to state-wise agro-ecosystems cropping pattern for 1998-99 and cropping pattern according to land utilization are provided. Broadly, the decisive parameters can be divided into two categories- natural factors and anthropogenic factors. It gives some insurance against the failure of one crop. My Courses. Only one season is utilised every year for harvest and the land remains uncultivated in the other seasons. Technology also plays a pivotal role in determining crop pattern. It … also play a vital role under socio-economic factors of cropping pattern. Wheat is one such crop which is grown under this pattern. On steep slopes, these strips are arranged along the contours (thus preventing erosion). Your email address will not be published. This is a farming practice that involves growing a single crop in a year and repeating the same crop in the following years on the same land without interchanging or rotating with other crops. Environmental pollution and … Today, as the nation remains the fastest growing economy of the world, agriculture plays a major role in developing our economy. A different way of growing crops gives the maximum benefits. Furthermore, the current climate change issues that have disrupted the global surface temperatures and rainfall patterns have also contributed to loss of productivity in the agricultural sector. Crops are classified according to the season in which they are grown. Concepts of multiple cropping, multistorey, relay and inter-cropping and their importance in relation to food production. Under this farming pattern, two crops are grown in a single crop year in succession. Thus, the cropping patterns are beneficial in improving the fertility of the soil, thereby, increasing the yield of the crops. Furthermore maintaining the barren land becomes difficult and it encourages pests, weeds and disease which reduces soil fertility and texture and can be harmful for the next batch of crops. Ideal rotation involves a combination of three unique types of crops namely- cultivated crops, grain crops and grass crops. The major cropping patterns include the following: Monocropping. UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam Optional Subject consists of 2 papers. Other than the tropics, some states like J&K, Himachal Pradesh, Upper Punjab, etc. It ensures crop protectionand availability of nutrients to the crops. Rice being a Kharif crop can be grown in monsoon followed by a short interval of pegionpea which has only 150 days of growth period. The crop statistics published by the governments are used to signify the cropping patterns. cropping systems are followed throughout the country and based on rationale of spread of crops in each district in the country, 30 important cropping systems have been identified. It can be defined as the proportion of area under various crops at a point of time. Discuss the factors that hinder the development of Contract Farming in India. ), nutrient content of soil, landforms (plains, plateaus, hills, slope) and sources of water (river, lake, pond and groundwater). This way, we can see growth in our agriculture which is a prerequisite for the development of our nation. Growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same land with a definite pattern. To know more about Cropping Patterns, keep visiting BYJU’S website or downl… Impact of high-yielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in cropping patterns. This includes the type of soil (alluvial, black, red, laterite, peaty, etc. Required fields are marked *, Copyright © 2021 | About | ToS | Privacy Policy | Disclosure | Contact | Sitemap. Not all farmers have adopted modern technology because either they cannot afford it, or they have unshakable beliefs in their customs and traditions. Most of the Indian subcontinent consists of tropical and sub-tropical regions which provide ambient temperatures and rainfalls for crops to grow. How the Model Contract Farming Model Act, 2018 aims to address these shortcomings? In UPSC IAS Exam also, it is an important part of the Indian economy and Indian geography. The Preliminary Examination of the UPSC Civil Service Examination serves as the first elimination round with a success rate of only about 3%. Moreover, income maximisation aspect is also playing an important role in influencing the cropping pattern in the country. Intercropping too requires careful planning, the crops that are chosen should be less of competitive and more of mutualistic. This prevents competition between the main crop and the intercrop and increases the land utility period as the second crop continues to grow even after the main crop is harvested. Cropping Pattern in India. Finally, with the number of cropping patterns available, economic and agricultural planners should work out a viable and effective cropping model for both agricultural and livestock farming. It is imperative to identify crops and their showing agro-climatic condition so that they can be categorized. But at the same time, this technique cannot be employed in modern farmlands as it prevents mechanisation of processes and requires higher maintenance costs. In this cropping pattern, the main crop is planted first and after a suitable duration, the intercrop or cover crop is planted before harvesting the main crop. Concepts of various cropping and farming systems. The cropping patterns determine the level of agricultural production. Cropping pattern refers to proportion of area under different crops at different points of time. A prime example is the crop combination of maize-soya bean-finger millet. Your email address will not be published. The cropping pattern of a region is an outcome of a long-term agricultural practices, social customs and traditions, physical conditions, and historical factors. Cropping pattern is a very dynamic concept as it varies over space and time, as in India the multiplicity of the cropping system is the main feature of Indian Agriculture, which is attributed to rainfed nature of agriculture and prevailing socio-economic conditions. GK, General Studies, Optional notes for UPSC, IAS, Banking, Civil Services. Relay cropping is like double cropping. But at the same time, the soil should be given adequate time to revitalise itself to maintain its quality and texture. Subsidies on crop type, pesticides and fertilisers, agricultural insurances, irrigation schemes and procurement of modern technology can affect a farmer’s choice of harvest as well as the agricultural procedures. It is a cropping pattern which cannot be planned years in advance as factors like weather, rainfall and temperatures are crucial for the determination of crop combination and sowing season. [2] UPSC Mains Paper - 3 14. It can be defined as the proportion of area under various crops at a point of time. Organic and Precision farming. This is economically very effective as in this pattern; two crops can be grown in one year. Concepts of various cropping and farming systems. Check important Government Schemes launched by the Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare. 14. Similarly, tea and coffee plantations are found in northeastern states, Karnataka and Kerala as these states hold optimum temperatures of 15-25°C, rainfall of 150-300 cm and are home to deep friable and well drained loamy soil. For example, wheat, barley and oats, are taken as one category. There is a greater risk of growing particular crop in larger areas, hence farmer chooses different cropping pattern based on the suitability and maximization of profit. Organic and Precision farming. Kharif crops like paddy, jowar, bajra, groundnut, etc. Crop choice is central to any cropping system. Seasons are the deciding factors of farming pattern in India. It is usually measured over a period of years. The average landholding size in India is as low as 2 hectares per ownership. No Comments on Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country Situation of Indian Agriculture Cropping Patterns in India: Factors Affecting; Most Important Cropping Patterns The type of rainfall, availability of water resources, soil type, temperature, relief, climate, labor and technology available decides the cropping pattern in a region. Second crops are planted before the first harvest of the first crop. OGP Instaclasses Batch 2 - Classroom Program - 2021 (Online) OGP Instaclasses Batch 2 - Classroom … This cropping pattern involves simultaneously growing two or more crops in the same field at the same time. Secondly, steps to control the pressure of natural disaster like draughts and floods should be improvised using modern technology. Monocropping reduces soil fertility and destroys the structure of the soil. But it has more disadvantages as uncultivated period is longer and land resources are wasted. Traditions, Expected Profit, Personal Preferences, resources also have a major role in determining the cropping pattern. Menu. It also indicates the time and spatial arrangement or sequence of crops a. GK, General Studies, Optional notes for UPSC, IAS, Banking, Civil Services. UPSC IFS Agriculture Syllabus Paper - I. Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation. SRMJEEE 2021 Eligibility Criteria, Age Limit, Education Qualification, AP ECET Syllabus 2021 – Check Subject Wise Syllabus Here, AP PGECET 2021 Syllabus – Check Subject Wise Syllabus Here, AP Polycet 2021 Syllabus – Check Subject Wise Syllabus Here, [Updated*] KEAM 2021 Syllabus – Check Subject Wise Syllabus, TANCET Syllabus 2021 – Check Subject Wise Syllabus Here, JEXPO 2021 Exam Pattern, Marking Scheme, Question Type, Mode, Essay on Friendship for School Students in English [Easy Words], Essay on Gandhi Jayanti for Students in English [Easy Words*], Essay on My Garden for School Kids & Students [Easy Words*]. Hence, planning and undertaking proper agricultural practices is of foremost benefit to both the producers as well as the consumers. Cropping Patterns. The cropping patterns of a region are closely influenced by the geo-climatic, socio-cultural, economic, historical and political factors. Concepts of various cropping and farming systems. Today, as the nation remains the fastest growing economy of the world, agriculture plays a major role in developing our economy. Package of practices for production of important cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fibres, sugar, commercial and fodder crops. Where ‘I’ stands for Relative Yield Index, x̅crop stands for mean yield of the crop in a component areal unit and x̅area denotes Mean yield of the total area. Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production. Additionally, this enables the farmer to grow a variety of crops in a single field in the same season. Frost is the number one enemy of the cotton plant and it is grown in areas having at least 210 frost free days in a year. With examples discuss the factors that determine cropping pattern in India. UPSC Prelims Syllabus 2021. On the basis of areal strength of the individual crops, cropping patterns are decided. cropping patterns remain dynamic across space and time. Hence, it is extremely important to have complete information on UPSC Prelims Syllabus as well as exam pattern. It is a primary activity, which produces food grains and raw materials for industries. The Intercropping ensures the maximum utilization of nutrients and also prevent pest and disease from spreading to all plants belonging to one family. CASH CROPS: COTTON: Conditions of growth: 1. For example, Paddy cultivation is most suitable in the states of West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Tamil Nadu due to the states fulfilling the crop’s natural requirements which include ambient temperatures between 22-32°C, rainfalls up to 150-300 cm and presence of deep clayey and loamy soil.

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